An increase in plasma FFA concentration with subsequent metabolic disorders also occurs under fasting conditions.
A decrease in plasma FFA concentration or pharmacological effects, which inhibit their oxidation in mitochondria, on the contrary, increase the utilization of glucose and lactate as a result of an increase in PDG maxpro steroids activity and an increase in the rate of pyruvate transport to mitochondria. At the height of intense physical activity, as well best legal steroids gnc as after taking nicotinic acid, the maxpro steroids content of FFA in the blood decreases by about 4 times, while increasing the activity of PDH in combination with increased glycogenolysis and an increase in the rate of glucose utilization in skeletal muscles.
In conditions maxpro steroids of normal blood supply, the main source of energy supply is the disposal of FFA. This forms up to 90% of the total ATP consumed by the muscle. This is determined by the fact that the utilization of FLC gives the maximum energy output per unit of substrate. Thus, with the complete oxidation of one palmitic acid molecule, 130 ATP molecules are formed, with legal oral steroids in canada the oxidation of one glucose molecule — 38 ATP molecules, and with anaerobic glycolysis of one glucose molecule, the yield is only 2 molecules.
Obviously, the aerobic mechanism of ATP resynthesis is distinguished by the highest productivity.
For example, glycogen breakdown:
fat splitting (palmitic acid):
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However, the utilization of FFA is associated with higher oxygen consumption, which results in a 15% increase in the amount of ATP per 1 mole of absorbed oxygen than in the utilization of FFA. This means that under conditions of normal blood supply and high reserve capacity to provide it with oxygen, more efficient way of energy production is utilization of FFA, but during ischemia, glucose becomes the preferred substrate.
Both in sports and in the clinic under conditions of hypoxia, preparations are used to activate aerobic glycolysis and suppress aerobic splitting of fats. In this case, the share of FFA oxidation is 70%, and the share of glucose oxidation is 30%. In practice, with the use of various drugs, it is possible to achieve a reduction in the proportion of oxidizable FFA to 40–50%, and a partial restriction of the metabolism of FLC will lead to an increase in energy output of only 5%. This is the price issue.
Common ways to suppress the breakdown of fats.
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1. Suppression of lipolysis and, accordingly, inhibition steroids are given to treat an exacerbation of rheumatoid disease. of catecholamine-dependent release of FFA through the use of? -Adrenergic blockers.
2. Nicotinic acid – inhibits lipolysis and the synthesis of triglycerides.
3. Direct inhibitors of β-oxidation of FFA (trimetazidine, ranolazine).
Trimetazidine was patented in 1961 by the French company Servier as a metabolic drug that increases tolerance to physical exertion in angina pectoris. It inhibits mitochondria? -Oxidation of long-chain and short-chain FLCs, blocking the last reaction of the 4-step oxidation process (3-ketoacyl-CoA-thiolase). But activated FFAs, accumulating in mitochondria, block ATP transport and at the same time act as surfactants that traumatize cell membranes and cause their destruction. The EMIP-FR study (1996) showed that trimetazidine, used to treat myocardial infarction, in the maxpro steroids form of a 48-hour infusion (briefly, in the acute phase) is comparable in effectiveness to placebo.
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Ranolazine is approved in the United States for the treatment of chronic angina, but not suitable for all patients. In women, the effect of ranolazine on the severity of symptoms of angina pectoris and exercise tolerance is lower than in men.
4. Inhibitors of the functioning of the carnitine-palmitin complex, which provides for the accumulation of FFA in mitochondria (mildronate).
Mildronat reversibly limits the rate how do steroids make you bigger of carnitine biosynthesis from its predecessor, β-butyrobetaine, and since carnitine is used to transport long-chain FLCs through mitochondrial membranes, FLC flux and their accumulation in mitochondria decrease, which does not affect the metabolism of short-chain FLC. This means that mildronate is almost incapable of a toxic effect on the respiration best legal steroids for cutting of mitochondria, because it blocks the oxidation of not all FFAs. The drug is limited to 2 weeks.
Stimulation of aerobic glycolysis.
1. Glucose-insulin-potassium mixture (ECLA, DIGAMI studies).
2. Carnitine (propionyl-L-carnitine – suppresses intramitochondrial coenzyme A). Clinical value is shown in myopathies. Oral administration of 2–6 g / day for more than two weeks resulted in improved aerobic capacity. However, the influence of carnitine on the results of athletes in the competition led to disappointing results.
3. Pyruvic acid. Studies in the laboratory have proven that pyruvate enhances muscle endurance. With all this, many bodybuilders, practitioners complain that the drug does not work. This is due to the diversity maxpro steroids of opinions regarding the working dose. Manufacturers advise taking 5-6 g daily, but in laboratory experiments doses of 20-25 g were used. However, such large doses can upset digestion. The best use of the drug – fractional doses of 2 – 4 g.
Under normal conditions, the share of aerobic processes accounts for about 90% of the total amount of ATP resynthesized in the body. Enzyme systems of aerobic metabolism are located mainly in the membranes of mitochondrial cristae. It is here that myoglobin delivers oxygen by transporting it from the cell membrane.
In a qualitative assessment of oxidative phosphorylation, the energy efficiency jose bautista steroids is about 67%. The total energy output in the aerobic process is more than 10 times higher than that in the anaerobic glycolytic process.
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As substrates of aerobic transformations in working muscles, not only intramuscular stores of carbohydrates, but also liver glycogen, fats and proteins can be used. Therefore, the total capacity of the aerobic process is very large and can not be a common assessment. If the total energy capacity of the carbohydrate depot in a young healthy man is about 2800 kcal, then the total energy capacity of the fat depot is about 80 000 kcal.
In contrast to anaerobic glycolysis, the metabolic capacity of which is largely limited to changes in homeostasis due to the accumulation of excess lactic acid in the body, the final products of aerobic transformations – CO
and water – do not cause any changes in homeostasis and are easily excreted from the body, therefore, the aerobic response of ATP resynthesis is considered as “pure”.
The power of the aerobic process largely depends on the rate of oxygen supply buy legal steroids pills to the tissues, the efficiency of external respiration processes and the rate of oxygen utilization by the cells (tissue respiration), which in turn depends on the number of mitochondria, the number and activity of enzymes steroids, the amount of myoglobin, the percentage of red and white muscle fibers, etc.
The power of aerobic energy production is estimated by the maximum oxygen consumption (MOC), which indicates the body’s ability to consume oxygen during muscular work. The IPC index is measured in liters per minute, but for greater objectification it can be converted into milliliters per minute per kilogram (ml / min / kg) of body weight.
The highest rates of BMD are recorded for skiers steroids and marathoners (50 – 70 km) – the magnitude of BMD reaches 83 – 85 ml / min / kg. High indicators how to take steroids correctly of the IPC for runners on long and medium distances (74 ml / min / kg), on runners on average distances (72 ml / min / kg), skaters, road cyclists (74 – 75 ml / min / kg), swimmers and rowers (69 – 70 ml / min / kg), as well as representatives of team sports (60 – 65 ml / min / kg). But among representatives of power sports – gymnasts, throwers steroids sex drive, weightlifters – this indicator practically does not differ from that of untrained people.
As already mentioned, the breakdown of glycogen and FFA during aerobic oxidation leads to a common substrate of both metabolic chains – acetyl-coenzyme A, which splits in the Krebs cycle. Strengthening the mitochondrial electron transport chain suggests effects on substrates such as cytochromes, succinate, and coenzyme Q.
Cytochrome C in food supplements is not only not useful, but even harmful because it cannot be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). There is no evidence of effectiveness in sports. The clinic (including pediatrics and ophthalmology) is used for all hypoxic conditions.
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Succinate (succinic acid) – there is no scientific research regarding the development of ergotropic effects. Pure succinic acid does not penetrate into the mitochondria, and therefore its reception is useless.
Coenzyme Q in the body is formed in adequate quantities. Nevertheless, in the United States it is a popular dietary supplement (60-100 mg / day for 4-6 weeks). Modern studies have not revealed the positive did mark mcgwire use steroids effects of such an additive.
1.2.6. Oxygen consumption during muscular work
During the transition from dormancy to intense muscular activity, the need for oxygen increases many times, but it cannot be immediately met. It is necessary that all bio-energetic reactions go through consistently before the activity of the respiratory and circulatory systems increases, and the blood enriched with oxygen reaches the working muscles.
With uniform operation and the achievement of a certain power, the growth of oxygen consumption stops and it stabilizes at the same level. This state of oxygen consumption by working muscles is called the true steady state of oxygen consumption: it reaches a certain level and at each given moment in time exactly corresponds to the needs of the organism.